There is a very significant difference in the understanding of WWII. The West seems to have never really included the Sino-Japanese War pre-1941 as part of WWII. As a result, they failed to understand the fact that the scar of this war on the Chinese people runs parallel to that of WWII to the Jews. In fact, only few critics such as James Berardinelli made the connection between "Lust, Caution" and "the Black Book". Failing to understand this means failing to understand the conflict and significance of Wong Chia Chi's final betrayal, both in a social and personal context. As a result, the story of Wong was degraded into that of a Bond girl perspective for some critics!